Brain lobes are the areas in which the cortex of the brain is divided according to the functions they perform. That is, they constitute a functional and anatomical division of our brain that helps us locate where each of our functions as a human being originates.
Actually, a brain is easy to divide at a glance, in its two hemispheres, since they are well differentiated by a fissure. However, within each hemisphere, we also find slightly differentiated areas thanks to other fissures and grooves.
When studying these areas it was understood that each one fulfills a series of specific tasks. Thus, brain lobes were defined. For example, the frontal lobe is where emotions and reasoning capacity reside, among others.
In this way, scientists claim that there are six brain lobes in our brains. They are the frontal lobe, the parietal, the temporal, the occipital, the insula and the limbic. In this article, we explain everything you need to know about them.
How are the brain lobes divided?
As we have already mentioned, brain lobes are first defined anatomically. This means that each one is located in a specific part of the brain. They are delimited by grooves and fissures that this organ presents normally.
First, the frontal lobe is located in the anterior part of the brain. As the name implies, it is located behind the frontal bone of the skull. It is one of the largest brain lobes.
On the other hand, we find the occipital lobe. It is at the back of the skull, near the neck. Between this lobe and the frontal one the parietal lobe resides. In addition, it is important to know that the temporal lobes are those that are in the area of the temples, also between the frontal and the occipital.
But this does not end here. The location of certain brain lobes, such as the insula and the limbic, is slightly more complex. The insula lobe is slightly hidden behind the temporal lobe itself. The limbic goes through the frontal, parietal and temporal lobe junctions.
What are the functions of the brain lobes?
Although it is not an exact and millimetric division, it is accepted that functions such as language, movement or reasoning are distributed in each of the lobes.
This part of the brain seems to be the one that relates to personality and decision making. It intervenes in impulse control and in social and sexual behavior. In fact, scientists believe that emotions start in this area.
Of the brain lobes, the parietal is the most involved in information processing. In addition, it is essential to obtain information about the space. That is, it allows us to know the size, shape, and distance of objects.
On the other hand, it seems that the parietal lobe also intervenes in the understanding of written language. It is even said that he is the one who gives us the ability to solve mathematical problems, among other things.
Temporal brain lobes
The temporal lobe deals with language and auditory memory. In addition, it relates to face recognition and speech comprehension. That is, it is the one that most relates to the auditory system. It is also the one that is most affected in epileptic disorders.
It is the one that has greater prominence in the sense of sight. It is responsible for interpreting and recognizing images. In the same way, it allows both color and movement discrimination as well as space recognition.
Other brain lobes: the insula and the limbic
The insula acts by integrating information from different systems of our body. It intervenes in numerous emotional processes, in taste, smell, and so on. In fact, it is the most related to pain perception and empathy.
The limbic lobe is primarily responsible for the ‘sense of survival’. It is linked to numerous functions such as hunger, sexual instinct, memory, and even attention.
Our brain is one of the most complex structures that exist. The study of brain lobes allows us to advance their knowledge and identify their parts and functions. In the future, this will help us establish better treatments and diagnoses.